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Child Abuse and Neglect Resources

The Tribal Law and Policy Institute has worked extensively with issues relating to child victimization and the development of Tribal-specific resources and strategies to address child abuse and neglect, Child Sexual Abuse and Child Witnesses to Violence and Indian Child Welfare Act issues. Additionally, we seek to collaborate with agencies that have special expertise in these areas as well, such as the National CASA Association, National Indian Child Welfare Association and the Native American Children’s Alliance. Information provided here is continually updated, and new resources are posted as they become available or is developed by our staff or collaborators.

 
Responses to the Co-Occurrence of Child Maltreatment and Domestic Violence in Indian Country: Repairing the Harm and Protecting Children and Mothers December 2011 (Draft) - The Tribal Law and Policy Institute, with funding from the Office on Violence Against Women (OVW), has undertaken an initial inquiry into the issue of the co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment in Indian country. Using a mixed method approach, this investigation sought to identify those practices that seem to be moving toward Native-specific promising practices, and to develop recommendations for further action in Indian country. Please note that this report is a draft version, since the final has not yet been formally approved by OVW.

Community Facilitator's Guidebook - The Tribal Law and Policy Institute announced the release of Pathway To Hope: Healing Child Sexual Abuse at the January 2008 Alaska Native Summit on Child Sexual Abuse which was held in Anchorage, Alaska. The video was developed through funds from the Office for Victims of Crime as a resource to Tribes receiving the Children's Justice Act Partnerships for Indian Communities grants to address child sexual abuse and serious child abuse. This video, which presents the voices of over 40 Native people, many of whom are survivors of child sexual abuse, and the Community Facilitator's Guidebook provide a step by step process for Tribal communities to end silence about child sexual abuse, support child victims and promote healing of those who suffered childhood abuse. The video opens with five different languages spoken by Native elders in Alaska as they give permission and urge attention on the issues of child sexual abuse for the sake of our children. Due to the sensitive issues addressed by the video and the need for guidance in using this product and the Guidebook for community education, we welcome the opportunity to provide onsite training and technical assistance on the use of these products.

Tribal Legal Code Resource: Crimes Against Children (or Microsoft Word 2007 Format) has been developed by the Tribal Law and Policy Institute under a Children's Justice Act Partnerships for Indian Communities training and technical assistance grant. Specifically it has been developed to provide assistance to tribes and tribal organizations that have also received Children’s Justice Act Partnerships for Indian Communities grants. Tribes frequently request assistance in developing and/or updating their laws to address victimization of tribal children. The Institute developed this Resource Guide and Workbook to meet the identified need. This project was conceived in 2001 under the guidance of an Advisory Committee of experts in the tribal justice field, those working with Native child abuse and child victimization issues, and with tribal child and family services providers. The Crimes Against American Indian/Alaska Native Children Resource Guide provides illustrative examples, narrative, and discussion questions. The discussion questions direct users through a tailoring process that will assure that the resulting draft statutory provisions reflect the needs and values of the tribal community that the targeted law serves.

Indian Child Welfare Act; Designated Tribal Agents for Service of Notice: A Notice by the Indian Affairs Bureau on 01/17/2014 - The regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act provide that Indian tribes may designate an agent other than the tribal chairman for service of notice of proceedings under the Act. This notice includes the current list of designated tribal agents for service of notice.

The concept of protecting children and families from various dangers is not new to most Native communities. In fact there have been standards and mechanisms in place, both cultural and societal, for eons that have guided how Native Peoples addressed safety of children and instructions for adults as to how they behaved with children. These practices have had a significant impact on preventing abusive and neglectful behavior from occurring. Some tribal programs prefer to use traditional systems to protect children, and to address parental difficulties. Some Tribal communities have adopted a "Children’s Bill of Rights" to memorialize their values and beliefs about children and expectations of parents and the community. With with these concepts in mind, the Tribal Law and Policy Institute has developed a publication, Child Abuse Protocol Development Guide.Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file

A Best Practice Approach for Tribal Advocates Working with Native Children who have Suffered Abuse Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file suggests an approach to evaluating the needs of children who enter the child protection system and suggests a context for the evaluation that is culturally consistent with most tribal child rearing philosophies.

Perceptions of Methamphetamine use in three Western Tribal Communities: Implications for Child Abuse in Indian Country Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file - Indian country lacks both a macro and micro study of child abuse and methamphetamines. Because so little is documented routinely by either law enforcement, social services or medical professionals in assessing risks and dangers to children from environments where meth is found, data is difficult to find. However, in an attempt to explore the increasing concerns raised by the emerging methamphetamine epidemic in Indian country, professionals from three Western Tribal communities were asked to complete a survey about their perceptions of meth us and implications for child abuse in the communities in which they worked. This study was funded through the Training and Technical Assistance grant that the Tribal Law and Policy Institute receives for Children’s Justice Act Partnerships in Indian Communities to assist tribes in addressing serious child abuse. The tribes and individuals that participated in the study were guaranteed anonymity due to the sensitive nature of the questions being asked. However, each Tribal Council provided permission for the surveys to be conducted within their service areas.

Victim Services: Promising Practices in Indian Country (2004) is an OVC monograph  produced by the Tribal Law and Policy Institute that describes promising practices for assisting victims of violence and abuse in twelve Indian Country locations throughout the United States. Each description includes the program’s keys to success, relevant demographic data, and a contact for further information.

Are They Really Neglected? A Look at Worker Perceptions of Neglect Through the Eyes of a a National Data System, by Kathleen Earle Fox, Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file looks at differences in perceptions of neglect of American Indian children found in the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS). Findings from an analysis of 17,000 cases of neglect of white or American Indian children were that the neglect of American Indian children, compared to Caucasian children, was more often associated with foster care placement, juvenile court petition, alcohol abuse of child or caretaker, violence in the family, and family receipt of public assistance.

The Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Services contracted the University of Oklahoma Sciences Center - Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (CCAN) to compile the Child Protection in Indian Country Handbook. This online resource is divided into four sections: the first section is an Overview of Child Protection in Indian Country, the second section is Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect in Indian Country, the third section is Required Character and Background Investigations for Potential Employees, and the fourth section is Child Protection Teams. The format of the IHS/BIA Child Protection Handbook (Handbook) allows for users to have readily available a published, manageable User’s Guide with immediate access to other resources such as training modules, templates, background information, references, and other information. The Tribal Law and Policy Institute’s Child Abuse Protocol Development Guide Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file is one of the links provided on the online CCAN document.

Aboriginal Social Work Education in Canada: Decolonizing Pedagogy for the Seventh Generation Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file by Raven Sinclair. Aboriginal social work is a relatively new field in the human services, emerging out of the Aboriginal social movement of the 1970s and evolving in response to the need for social work that is sociologically relevant to Aboriginal people. Aboriginal social work education incorporates Aboriginal history and is premised upon traditional sacred epistemology in order to train both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal social workers who can understand and meet the needs of Aboriginal people.

Resource Guide for Parents, Caregivers, and Service Providers working with Alaska Native Children Adobe Acrobat is required to view this file. is a Resource Guide that was designed to provide useful and practical information, ideas and tips to help with some of the difficult parts of the crime of Child Abuse. In Alaska Native communities, nearly everyone is impacted in some way by child sexual abuse in the past or currently. This Guide provides a way to reach out, share the load and offers information to help with coping, and to support a healing process—whether as a child, a parent or caregiver, a service provider and in the community where people are impacted by child abuse.

Understanding the Effects of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development in Native Children Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file – By Eidell Wasserman, Ph.D. CJA grantees have requested information that will assist them in educating others about the impact of victimization and trauma on brain development in young Native children. This full color document is a summary of the current research, and includes graphics and several “story boxes” to help readers understand the scientific basis and provide practical information on how trauma affects children.

Indian Country Child Trauma Center (ICCTC) was established to develop trauma-related treatment protocols, outreach materials, and service delivery guidelines specifically adapted and designed for Native American children and their families. The treatment protocols, outreach materials and service delivery guidelines developed by ICCTC will incorporate both common and tribal-specific Native cultural perspectives and traditions; will focus on principles of current evidence-based models; and will accommodate the substantial individual-to-individual variability in cultural identity among Native people.

Another Look at the Effects of Child Abuse Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file is a report that replicates earlier findings that the effects of childhood victimization last into adulthood. Children who are physically abused and neglected have an increased risk of arrest for violence.

The final report of Child Physical and Sexual Abuse: Guidelines for Treatment Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file Final Report: January 15, 2003 is now available for distribution. This document was prepared by The National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center (Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina).

In response to frequent requests for information to assist non-Native people in responding appropriately to Native children and families when there are allegations or disclosures of child abuse and child sexual abuse, the Alaska office of the Tribal Law and Policy Institute has developed Tips for Non-Native Medical Providers Working in Alaska Native Communities Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file This document is specific to medical personnel, but similar versions are also available for State child protection workers, CASAs, and victim advocates working with Native children. For more information, please contact Diane Payne, Children's Justice Specialist, at 907-770-1950.

Injury Mortality Among American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Youth Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file (August 1, 2003 / Vol. 52 / No. 30),  from the Centers for Disease Control Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report found that while injuries account for 75% of all deaths among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children and youth, and AI/ANs have an overall injury-related death rate that is twice the U.S. rate for all racial/ethnic populations. However, rate disparities vary by area and by cause. To help focus prevention efforts, CDC analyzed injury mortality data by Indian Health Service (IHS) administrative area and by race/ethnicity. This report summarizes the results of these analyses, which indicate that although death rates for some causes (e.g. drowning and fire) have shown substantial improvement over time, rates for other causes have increased or remained unchanged (e.g., homicide and suicide, respectively). Prevention strategies should focus on the leading causes of injury related death in each AI/AN community, such as motor-vehicle crashes, suicides, and violence.

Basic Guidelines for Forensic Interviewers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases in Indian Country and Alaska Native Communities Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file by Roe Bubar, J.D., is intended to provide an overview of the primary considerations necessary in the interview process when allegations of child sexual abuse arise in Indian Country and Alaska Native communities. Forensic interviews are an important part of the investigative process, require specialized training and involve complex issues. This document outlines three areas of particular concern and is not intended to be a training tool that informs or guides the interview process.

California Indian Legal Services has developed and posted an excellent online 2000 edition of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) Bench Guide for California Judges.

Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA). The constitutionality of the Indian Child Welfare Act was strongly upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court in Mississippi Choctaw v. Holyfield, 490 U.S. 30 (1989). There have been a series of efforts in recent years to Amend the ICWA.

National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA) has served hundreds of American Indian Nations throughout the country by helping to strengthen and enhance their capacity to deliver quality child welfare services. This site includes:

Indian Child Protection Home Page (from the Internet Archive) contains the following links:

The National Center on Sexual Behavior of Youth is a national training and technical assistance center developed by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. The Center is designed to provide states, territories, and the District of Columbia with information and support through national training and technical assistance in the management of children with sexual behavior problems and adolescent sex offenders.

The ABA Center on Children and the Law maintains a site which is intended to serve as a useful, interactive, resource tool for lawyers, judges, and other child advocates.

The Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (CCAN) was established in 1992 in the Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Project Making Medicine is a national training program for mental health professionals from tribal and Indian Health Service agencies in the prevention and treatment of child abuse. The  project emphasizes the importance of traditional teachings and beliefs in the healing process. In addition, CCAN provides several monographs in PDF format addressing child abuse and general victim issues in Indian country, including Confidentiality Issues in Child Physical and Sexual Abuse Cases, Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file History of Victimization in Indian Country, Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file The Difference Between Forensic Interviews and Clinical Interviews, Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file Dealing with Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse, Abusers who were Abused: Myths and Misunderstandings, Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file and Native Americans and HIV / AIDS. Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file

Helping to Prevent Child Abuse - and Future Criminal Consequences: Hawaii's Healthy Start is an in-depth study of the successes of the state of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

Resource Guidelines: Improving Court Practice in Child Abuse & Neglect Cases Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file were developed by a committee of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges, comprised of active member judges who were joined by representatives from the National Conference of Chief Justices and the American Bar Association Judicial Administration Division. Staff of the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges and its research arm, the National Center for Juvenile Justice, worked in conjunction with  committee members and consultants to develop these recommendations to help guide the acquisition and allocation of judicial resources.

Court Appointed Special Advocates. This past year there were more than 1 million abused and neglected children nationwide. These children find champions in CASA volunteers. Working in conjunction with child protective services and the juvenile justice system, the CASA program helps to meet the needs of these children for safety and for suitable, permanent homes. For more information, see the Tribal Court CASA Page.

The National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) is one of the most extensive sources of information on criminal and juvenile justice in the world, providing services to an international community of policymakers and professionals. NCJRS is a collection of clearinghouses supporting all bureaus of the U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs: the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Bureau of Justice Assistance, the Office for Victims of Crime, and the OJP Program Offices. It also supports the Office of National Drug Control Policy.

Impact of Methamphetamines on the Child Welfare System

Methamphetamine use is a growing problem for children and families across the country. To protect and support families, child welfare workers need to know what this drug is and how it affects users.

Methamphetamine labs are increasing in Tribal communities at an alarming rate. The manufacturing or “cooking” of this dangerous drug poses serious physical and emotional threats to the children who are in these meth homes. Children in these homes are frequently neglected, sometimes physically abused, and often suffer from health conditions related to the manufacturing of the drug. These children may also accidentally ingest the drug or one of the toxic chemicals used to make the drug. In some situations, these children have been seriously physically abused by an adult under the influence of meth – a drug that has been found to increase violent, aggressive behavior in those who use it. In addition, this drug manufacturing process presents serious hazards for emergency medical personnel, fire fighters, law enforcement investigators and child protection workers who may arrive at one of these locations in their line of duty in response to a report.

Responding to and treating methamphetamine use

Information on methamphetamines and child welfare

  • Methamphetamine provides an overview of the drug, including street names, effects, usage, prevention, and treatment, as well as summaries of research findings.
  • Methamphetamine: The Child Welfare Impact and Response � Conference Proceedings from the May 2006 conference on methamphetamines and the impact of the drug on children and families.
  • MethResources.gov is a comprehensive resource from the Federal Government for States, counties, cities, and communities about issues associated with the use of methamphetamines.
  • National Center on Substance Abuse and Child Welfare (NCSACW) works to develop knowledge and provide technical assistance to Federal, State, and local agencies and tribes to improve outcomes for families with substance use disorders in the child welfare and family court systems.
  • Drug Endangered Children describes risks to Drug Endangered Children and activities initiated by the Federal Government to protect children who reside in or visit methamphetamine labs. Includes sample protocols for staff training.

Historic Documents

Advocates for Indian and Alaska Native children should assess the current challenges in addressing child abuse in Tribal communities by understanding the historical context for the breakdown of Indian families and intrusions into Native systems of kinship care and community responsibility for children. An important document in federal-Indian policy regarding the removal of children, attempts to eliminate indigenous practices of child rearing, particularly the role of boarding and mission schools, is the Meriam Report issued in 1928. 

Child Abuse and Neglect

Indian Health Service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has links to information concerning child abuse and neglect issues.

The Indian Health Service and Office for Victims of Crime Child Abuse Project (IHS/OVC Child Abuse Project) has demonstrated over the past 4 years its effectiveness in reaching this vulnerable and hidden population (child victims of abuse and neglect); providing medical evaluation where they live, in a timely, affordable, sensitive and confidential manner, while bringing state of the art technology and a high standard of care to rural and isolated areas. This project is supported by many individuals at many levels, including the Indian Health Service, Office for Victims of Crime, the service units and Tribes who sent participants, the vendors of the hardware and software utilized by the project, and the compassion and dedication of the project’s participants and well-known national faculty.

The following text files can be found at the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (OJJDP is charged with leading the fight against juvenile violence and victimization, and promoting practical solutions to the problems challenging our Nation's juveniles).

  • STD's and Child Sexual Abuse. Investigating allegations of sexual abuse of children is very difficult for law enforcement. While the consequences of all abuse of children are of great concern to us, sexual abuse can be particularly devastating, especially when a sexually transmitted disease is part of the tragic legacy of violation.
  • Burn Injuries in Child Abuse. Our most defenseless children are the most likely to be burned intentionally. Child abuse burn victims are almost always under the age of ten with the majority under the age of two. Immediate identification of intentional burn victims by those individuals first responding to the call for assistance is crucial because most of the victims are unable to speak for themselves.
  • Child Sexual Exploitation: Improving Investigations and Protecting Victims. This document was designed to serve as a national prototype guiding collaboration among federal, state, and local agencies that are involved in investigating and prosecuting child pornography or prostitution cases and providing services to the young victims of these crimes.
  • Law Enforcement Response to Child Abuse is designed to assist those working to help protect children from being victimized and to improve the investigation of child abuse cases.

Child Welfare Information Gateway (formerly the National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse and Neglect Information) promotes the safety, permanency, and well-being of children and families by connecting child welfare, adoption and related professionals as well as concerned citizens to timely, essential information. Among the many documents available are:

  1. Child Neglect: A Guide for Prevention, Assessment and Intervention - Child protective services (CPS), a division within state and local social service agencies, is at the center of every communities' child protection efforts. In most jurisdictions, CPS is the agency mandated by law to conduct an initial assessment or investigation of reports of child abuse or neglect. CPS does not work alone. Many community professionals -- including law enforcement officers, health care providers, mental health professionals, educators, legal and court system personnel, and substitute care providers -- are involved in efforts to prevent, identify, investigate and treat child abuse and neglect. In addition, community and faith-based organizations, substance abuse treatment.
  2. Child Protection in Families Experiencing Domestic Violence - Domestic violence is a devastating social problem that affects every segment of the population. While system responses are primarily targeted towards adult victims of abuse, increasing attention is now focused on the children who witness domestic violence. Studies estimate that 10 to 20 percent of children are at risk for exposure to domestic violence. Research also indicates children exposed to domestic violence are at an increased risk of being abused or neglected, and that a majority of studies reveal there are adult and child victims in 30 to 60 percent of families who experience domestic violence.
  3. Child Protective Services: A Guide for Caseworkers. 2003 examines the roles and responsibilities of child protective services (CPS) workers. It describes the purposes, key decisions, and issues of each stage of the CPS process: intake, initial assessment/investigation, family assessment, case planning, service provision, evaluation of family progress and case closure. The manual also covers strategies for casework supervision, training, and support. Appendices include a glossary of terms, resource listings of selected national organizations, State toll-free telephone numbers for reporting child abuse, and the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics. 8 tables and 173 references.
  4. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice examines the roles and responsibilities of child protective services (CPS) workers. It describes the purposes, key decisions, and issues of each stage of the CPS process: intake, initial assessment/investigation, family assessment, case planning, service provision, evaluation of family progress and case closure. The manual also covers strategies for casework supervision, training, and support. Appendices include a glossary of terms, resource listings of selected national organizations, State toll-free telephone numbers for reporting child abuse, and the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics. 8 tables and 173 references.
  5. The Importance of Fathers in the Healthy Development of Children examines the roles and responsibilities of child protective services (CPS) workers. It describes the purposes, key decisions, and issues of each stage of the CPS process: intake, initial assessment/investigation, family assessment, case planning, service provision, evaluation of family progress and case closure. The manual also covers strategies for casework supervision, training, and support. Appendices include a glossary of terms, resource listings of selected national organizations, State toll-free telephone numbers for reporting child abuse, and the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics. 8 tables and 173 references.
  6. The Role of Educators in Preventing and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect provides information on the roles and responsibilities of child care providers in preventing, recognizing, and reporting child abuse and neglect within and outside early childhood programs. It also presents an overview of prevention efforts, reporting laws, caring for maltreated children, and ways to support parents and professionals who work with families.
  7. The Role of Professional Child Care Providers in Preventing and Responding to Child Abuse and Neglect provides information on the roles and responsibilities of child care providers in preventing, recognizing, and reporting child abuse and neglect within and outside early childhood programs. It also presents an overview of prevention efforts, reporting laws, caring for maltreated children, and ways to support parents and professionals who work with families.
  8. Supervising Child Protective Services Caseworkers provides the foundation for effective supervisory practice in child protective services (CPS). It describes the roles and responsibilities of the CPS supervisor, and it provides practice oriented advice on how to carry out supervisory responsibilities effectively. Best practices and critical issues in supervisory practice are underscored throughout. Topics include: The nature of CPS supervision; Making the transition from caseworker to supervisor; Building the foundation for effective unit performance; Building staff capacity and achieving excellence in performance; Supervisory feedback and performance recognition; Results-oriented management; Clinical supervision; Recruitment and retention; Managing from the middle; and Taking care of oneself and ...
  9. Working with the Courts in Child Protection is designed to provide guidance on child protection practices, this manual explains court processes most relevant to child abuse and neglect cases. It introduces concepts and terminology associated with the courts, describes the key court processes, and presents practical information to help child protective services caseworkers prepare for court litigation. Specific chapters address: the general or common court system; the powers of the court and the rights of parents and children in child maltreatment cases; the interplay between child maltreatment legislation and caseworker practice; the juvenile court process; the criminal court process, etc..

Child Welfare Information Gateway Fact Sheets:

  1. About CAPTA: A Legislative History summarizes the legislative history and purpose of the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), the key Federal legislation addressing child abuse and neglect. CAPTA was originally enacted in P.L. 93-247 and was most recently amended and reauthorized on June 25, 2003 by the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-36).
  2. How Federal Legislation Impacts Child Welfare Service Delivery provides an overview of the process by which legislative actions and policy changes at the Federal level impact State and Tribal child welfare systems and service delivery. Links to pertinent resources are provided for each step of the process.
  3. How the Child Welfare System Works gives a brief overview of the purposes and functions of the child welfare system from a national perspective. It discusses what happens when a report of possible abuse or neglect is made, what happens when a report is screened in, and what happens in substantiated cases.
  4. Leaving Your Child Home Alone  provides some questions for parents to consider before leaving their children home alone, as well as tips to help make the experience safe and successful for all.
  5. Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect provides an overview of some of the most common physical, psychological, behavioral, and societal consequences of child abuse and neglect, including findings from research supported by the Federal Government.
  6. Major Federal Legislation Concerned With Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption summarizes the major provisions of key Federal laws regarding child protection, child welfare, and adoption. Includes a timeline of Federal child welfare legislation.
  7. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect describes common activities of prevention programs, keys to successful prevention services, and protective factors that increase the health and well-being of children and families. It also lists simple things everyone can do to support families in raising safe and healthy children.
  8. Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms lists general signs that may signal the presence of child abuse. It also includes signs associated with specific types of maltreatment such as physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment.

Helping to Prevent Child Abuse - and Future Criminal Consequences: Hawaii's Healthy Start is an in-depth study of the successes of the state of Hawaii's Healthy Start Program.

Resource Guidelines: Improving Court Practice in Child Abuse & Neglect Cases (Adobe Acrobat File)

Prosecuting Child Physical Abuse Cases Lessons Learned From the San Diego Experience. There are many more incidences of child physical abuse and neglect than of sexual abuse. In fact, over 200,000 incidences of child physical abuse occur each year in this country. A national survey sponsored by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect revealed that despite this number, district attorneys' offices prosecute far fewer cases of child physical abuse and neglect than cases of child sexual abuse.

Child Witness to Violence

The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges has a major new initiative, popularly known as the Greenbook Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file that is helping child welfare and domestic violence agencies and family courts work together more effectively to help families experiencing violence. Research and experience has verified a strong link between violence against women and abuse of children in the same home. It is imperative that child abuse and neglect responses incorporate evaluation of domestic violence and that safety plans for women include treatment and support for children who have witnessed violence. Courts must be aware of the effects of violence on both adults and children in order to take action that will adequately address the immediate as well as the long term harm to children of domestic violence victims.

Child Sexual Abuse

Basic Guidelines for Forensic Interviewers in Child Sexual Abuse Cases in Indian Country and Alaska Native Communities Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file by Roe Bubar, J.D., is intended to provide an overview of the primary considerations necessary in the interview process when allegations of child sexual abuse arise in Indian Country and Alaska Native communities. Forensic interviews are an important part of the investigative process, require specialized training and involve complex issues. This document outlines three areas of particular concern and is not intended to be a training tool that informs or guides the interview process.

Improving Tribal/Federal Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases Through Agency Cooperation is an OVC bulletin that encourages close cooperation between tribal and federal law enforcement agencies to ensure effective investigation and prosecution of child abuse cases. Employing multiagency protocols and teams, for instance, helps address the jurisdictional overlap and confusion in oversight that often leads to multiple investigations and child interviews, which result in unnecessary victim trauma.

Bitter Earth: Child Sexual Abuse in Indian Country Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file (September 1999) is an OVC discussion guide (NCJ 179105) and educational tool to increase the awareness of child sexual abuse in Indian Country among community members and non-Indian service providers. It provides a basis for discussion of this problem among members of tribal and American Indian organizations, tribal court and law enforcement personnel, victim advocates, child welfare and human services professionals, and community organizations. The guide accompanies the Bitter Earth: Child Sexual Abuse in Indian Country video (NCJ 144998).

Child Victims, New Directions from the Field: Victims' Rights and Services for the 21st Century Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file (August 1998) is a reprint of a chapter in New Directions and deals specifically with promising practices and recommendations related to child victims. An Executive Summary and 17 other Bulletins complete the set.

I'm Going to Federal Court with Mark & Julie Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file (1997) is an OVC activity book that includes pages to color, games, puzzles, and information to teach child witnesses about the court experience they face. The book is a companion piece to the video Inside Federal Court (September 1995; NCJ 157156), which also instructs children and their families about the court process to build confidence and reduce anxiety about testifying.

Learning All About Court With "B.J.": An Activity Book for Children Going to Federal or Tribal Court Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view this file (September 1997) is an OVC activity book (NCJ 167252) that contains games, puzzles, and information designed to instruct children on the jobs performed by tribal and federal court personnel. The activity book uses the same characters as and is designed to accompany the video B.J. Learns About Federal and Tribal Court (NCJ 139730).

Prosecuting Child Physical Abuse Cases Lessons Learned From the San Diego Experience. There are many more incidences of child physical abuse and neglect than of sexual abuse. In fact, over 200,000 incidences of child physical abuse occur each year in this country. A national survey sponsored by the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect revealed that despite this number, district attorneys' offices prosecute far fewer cases of child physical abuse and neglect than cases of child sexual abuse.

The Native American Children's Alliance serves as a cross mentoring organization to inspire and support the development, growth and maintenance of multi-disciplinary teams and child advocacy centers for Native American and Alaska Native communities. These centers to specialize in the forensic interview and examination of Native child victims and witnesses. For more information, contact NACA Program Manager Linda Rasmussen. She can be reached at (216) 321-7989 or via e-mail at choctawcaf@yahoo.com.

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