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Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts

The following sites contain extensive drug court resources. These sites are increasingly including tribal drug court specific resource materials. For additional alcohol and substance abuse resources, see our Alcohol and Substance Abuse page.

The Tribal Law and Policy Institute is pleased to announce the release of our newest BJA-approved publication: Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: The Key Components, 2nd ed. This publication is the second edition of The Key Components, originally published in 2003. The Key Components, 2nd ed., updates the key components of a Healing to Wellness Court as they apply in the tribal setting. Updates have been made to the law, treatment strategies, and evidenced-based practices. The key components describe the basic elements of a Healing to Wellness Court, and are important considerations for any tribal sovereign developing or operating their own problem-solving court. The publication focuses on the adult model, but also includes references for juvenile and family Healing to Wellness Courts. Each component is explained, followed by findings from the National Institute of Justice's Wellness Court Study, recommended practices, and lessons learned. Finally, each component concludes with a Tribal Story, providing context and creative strategies from operational Healing to Wellness Courts.

Overview of Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts, 2nd ed. (2014) is an update to our 2002 publication, Healing to Wellness Courts: A Preliminary Overview of Tribal Drug Courts. This publication offers a simple, lay-friendly overview of the tribal drug court model, including the Tribal 10 Key Components and the various iterations that Healing to Wellness Courts can take throughout Indian country. This publications explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges faced in implementing and operating a Healing to Wellness Court. Common challenges include adapting the drug court concept to include alcohol dependency and abuse treatment, accounting for the unique jurisdictional factors present in Indian country, and ensuring sustainability.

The Tribal Law and Policy Institute is please to announce the launch of our newest web site, TribalWellnessCourts. TribalWellnessCourts is geared specifically towards Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts. The site includes a plethora of Wellness Court resources, including all Institute publications, and articles, fact-sheets, and PowerPoint presentations organized by subject-matter. The site includes links to our TA Partners, and our Calendar of Upcoming Events, and all of our Past Training Materials.

 

Resources from the Tribal Healing to Wellness Court Enhancement Training 2013
September 11 - 13, 2013
Renaissance Hotel, Agua Caliente Reservation, California

Wednesday, September 11, 2013

Thursday, September 12, 2013

Friday, September 13, 2013

National Association of Drug Court Professionals Applauds Justice Department Smart on Crime Initiative; Calls for Federal Drug Court Expansion
August. 12, 2013 -- Today, Attorney General Eric Holder outlined new Justice Department initiatives aimed at reducing the U.S. Prison population, including easing federal mandatory minimums for some drug offenders. With federal prisons operating at nearly 40 percent above capacity, the Drug Court model offers a proven solution for diverting non-violent, non-drug dealing, and seriously addicted offenders into treatment instead of putting them behind bars.

BJA has released the Adult Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program Performance Report for Enhancement Grantees and the Adult Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program Performance Report for Implementation Grantees. These reports cover data submitted by BJA Drug court grantees for the 2012 fiscal year.

Notable findings:

  • Among implementation grantees, the graduation rate is lower among tribal programs (35%) than in programs in other locations, and among enhancement grantees, the graduation rate is only 39%. However, in both cases the sample size of tribal programs is significantly smaller than programs in other locations.
  • Among implementation grantees, over 88% of screened candidates in tribal locations are eligible, but only 44% are admitted into a drug court program. This may be due to a lack of capacity in drug courts located in tribal locations.

Materials from April 3, 2013 BJA Webinar for Drug Court Grantees
Here is the BJA Webinar for Drug Court Grantees PowerPoint Presentation and a list of Technical Assistance Providers for Drug Courts. Give them a call!

NADCP 2013 Annual Drug Court Training Conference
Tribal Track Presentations (July 14 - 17, 2013)

Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts have emerged as a model alternative to incarceration and as a non-adversarial tool against the debilitating effects of alcohol and drugs in Indian country. This Institute will provide tools for already-implemented Tribal Wellness Courts seeking to progress their court to higher levels of sophistication and sustainability. Training topics will include team communication, screening and eligibility, legal issues, editing policies and procedures and participant handbooks, case management, judicial interaction, collaboration, and process evaluation.

Feedback on Adult Drug Court Discretionary Grant Application Process

The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) has requested feedback regarding the Adult Drug Court Discretionary Grant application process. This is your opportunity to influence the process! NDCI has designed a questionnaire on the National Drug Court Resource Center website (www.ndcrc.org) or you can access it by clicking this link: http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/BJAsolicitation2012. Please visit the website or click on the link and submit your feedback!

Tribal Wellness Courts Program Training/Technical Assistance

The Tribal Law & Policy Institute is working under a grant from the Bureau of Justice Assistance to provide Training and Technical Assistance (T&TA) to Tribal Healing to Wellness (Drug) Courts.

There are three overall project goals for the Institutes T&TA Program:

  • To provide a wide array of T&TA to assist tribal jurisdictions in developing tribal adult, juvenile, and/or family drug courts (wellness courts);
  • To provide T&TA to strengthen existing Tribal Healing to Wellness Court programs;
  • To provide the field with state-of-the-art information and resources on effective strategies for addressing substance-abusing offenders in Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts programs.

To request technical assistance, please complete the online Tribal Wellness Court Training and Technical Assistance Request Form. Trouble viewing the T&TA Request Form? Please Click Here.

The Tribal Law & Policy Institute has created a Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts List Serve (Mailing List). You can subscribe to the mailing list by filling out the online form on the Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts List Serve web page.

Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: Needs Assessment Report - As part of a grant from the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) to provide training and technical assistance (T&TA) to Tribal Wellness Courts, the Tribal Law and Policy Institute (TLPI) sent out a needs assessment survey in November of 2009. The survey was sent to over 90 tribes that either currently have an active Wellness Court, or have had a Wellness Court at some time in the past but it is no longer functioning. Attention was given to ensure that the current 13 BJA Wellness Court grantees completed the survey. The primary purpose of the survey was to gain insight into the most pressing needs among active Wellness Courts, as well as to determine the needs of courts that are no longer functioning, so that TLPI could focus our efforts on the most relevant T&TA. This report summarizes the results of this survey and provides an analysis of the implications for T&TA, BJA and Tribal Wellness Courts.

Sample Wellness Court Codes

  1. Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope Wellness Court Code – June 1, 2001 – Section VI.
  2. Cherokee Wellness Court Code
  3. Spokane Wellness Court Code
  4. Hoopa Valley Wellness Court Code

National American Indian Court Judges Association 43rd Annual Meeting and National Tribal Judicial Conference
October 17 - 19, 2012 ~ Mystic Lake Resort and Casino

Plenary Presentation by the Tribal Law and Policy Institute

The National Center for State Courts has teamed with American University for an Adult Drug Court Research to Practice (R2P) Initiative to promote the timely dissemination of information emerging from research on addiction science, substance abuse treatment, and adult drug court programs. With funding from BJA and the National Institute of Justice, the R2P Initiative will produce a series of webinars, webcasts, and other work products that disseminate important research to practitioners and policymakers.

Please visit the new R2P web site at http://research2practice.org/ for more information on current and future information resources, including:

  • Videos on Performance Measurement and Program Evaluation for Drug Courts
  • An upcoming webinar on Appropriate Target Population
  • An upcoming webcast on The Role of Medication

The Justice Programs Office of the School of Public Affairs (SPA) at American University was established to support SPA's mission of applying the tools of scholarship and professionalism to the design and management of public programs. The Justice Programs Office provides technical assistance, research, evaluation, and training services to domestic and foreign government agencies and organizations in the area of justice system operations. JPO projects address a wide range of policy, program, resource, and operational issues relating to the administration of justice, coordination of public programs, and the delivery of justice system, social and related services. The office has conducted over 1,500 technical assistance, research, training, and evaluation projects.


BJA and the National Drug Court Institute are pleased to announce the launch of the National Drug Court Resource Center


NIJ has developed a Logic Model for Adult Drug Court Programs that court administrators and their partners who want to examine the performance of their drug courts may find useful. The logic model can help clarify the best way to use resources and what long- and short-term outcomes drug court teams should consider measuring. The logic model has six components:

  1. Inputs - financial, staff, equipment and other resources invested to support the program.
  2. Activities - structured services intended to deliver what is necessary to achieve objectives.
  3. Outputs - observable and measurable events resulting from program implementation.
  4. Short-term outcomes - immediate changes realized especially during program participation.
  5. Long-term outcomes - changes realized after program participation.
  6. External factors - conditions outside the program that affect implementation and outcomes.

Did you know NIJ is funding a major drug court evaluation, called the Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation, that is building upon successful process and impact evaluations of individual adult drug court programs?


Planning a drug court and need information to begin? Go to Taking Aim: How to Develop and/or Redefine Your Target Drug Court Population.


The Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) is pleased to announce the launch of a new online training program—the BJA Grant Writing and Management Academy. The Academy is designed to assist criminal justice practitioners and state, local, and tribal jurisdictions, including community and faith-based organizations, through the grant-writing process and project management activities. Through self-paced modules, the user will learn about:

  • Issues and requirements to consider before applying for BJA funds.
  • Steps and development required to submit a well-rounded application.
  • Management and administration necessary for a successful project.
  • Supplemental information focusing on strategic planning and budget development.

The Bureau of Justice Assistance has established The Grant Writing and Management Academy for criminal justice practitioners and state, local, and tribal jurisdictions (including any community- and/or faith-based partners) that apply for or receive federal grants. This training provides an overview of project planning, management, administration, and assessment of federally funded programs. The training encourages participants to think strategically about how they develop and fund projects. Participants are introduced to a variety of methods and tools used to identify community problems, administer and manage projects, and assess performance.

The Tribal Law and Policy Institute has developed six comprehensive Tribal Healing to Wellness Court publications as part of the Tribal Healing to Wellness Court Technical Assistance Project Resource Publication Series (Adobe Acrobat Reader is required to view these files). The full series is as follows:
  • Healing to Wellness Courts: A Preliminary Overview of Tribal Drug Courts Adobe Acrobat Reader is Required to View this File. (initially published in July 1999) provides an overview of Tribal Drug Courts or Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts. This overview discusses how the drug court concept is consistent with Native American concepts of justice and how the drug court concept can be adapted to meet the specific needs of individual Native American communities. It provides information concerning the background of the Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts movement, the unique role and importance of Tribal Justice Systems, adapting the term "drug court" for Trial Justice Systems, defining drug courts, and defining Healing to Wellness Courts. It then provides an overview of some of the critical issues and challenges faced by Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts, including the challenge of incorporating tribal custom and tradition, addressing the high volume of alcohol abuse cases, and addressing jurisdictional and resource limitations.
  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: The Key Components Adobe Acrobat Reader is Required to View this File. is designed to provide suggested key components and recommended practices needed for Indian Nations and tribal justice systems to consider as they design, develop, and implement drug courts that meet the needs of their individual communities. The publication is organized around ten key components, adapted for Indian nations and tribal justice systems, which describe the basic elements that define Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts. The purpose of each component is explained, followed by several recommended practices that give guidance for implementing each component. Healing to Wellness Courts help to put misguided individuals back on track, on to a healing to wellness journey. As this publication sets forth, each tribal community and nation must define and describe the nature of this healing journey. Its direction and pathway must be guided by each Indian Nation's culture, tradition, common practices, and vision.
  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: Treatment Guidelines for Adults and Juveniles (Draft) Adobe Acrobat Reader is Required to View this File. examines guidelines that have been developed to provide tribal communities with an overview of substance abuse treatment strategies as they have been developed by drug court programs. Tribal programs might consider applying these treatment strategies along with traditional healing practices. These guidelines draw upon the experiences of hundreds of state adult and juvenile drug court programs, operating in various environments and serving a wide range of individuals addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. This publication examines key issues in developing treatment, developing a wellness court treatment program, adapting treatment program components, special considerations regarding treatment services, strategies for maintaining sobriety (relapse prevention), and looking ahead. Please note that this is the first publication to comprehensively address the difficult and controversial issue of drug court treatment guidelines - consequently, this publication should also prove very useful for state drug courts.
  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: The Judge’s Bench Book (Draft) Adobe Acrobat Reader is Required to View this File. is designed to provide instruction and practical tools for judges in their efforts to guide those traveling on the road to wellness. It is designed to provide general guidance for judges, examples of court procedure, and tools to assist judges in their wellness court role. This benchbook is also useful for wellness court team members and community leaders who are interested in designing, creating, an implementing a wellness court program.
  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: Program Development Guide (Draft) Adobe Acrobat Reader is Required to View this File. provides step-by-step recommendations for design, development, and implementation of Tribal Healing to Wellness Court programs from a practical standpoint. It is designed to assist steering committees and planning groups as they (1) use team-based  approaches; (2) gain knowledge of Healing to Wellness Court concepts; (3) incorporate the ten key components; (4) help establish policies and procedures suitable to the needs of the tribal community; (5) guide the court to integrate available resources; (6) develop interagency agreements; (7) incorporate a management information system to track participants and services; and (8) identify possible problem areas.
  • Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts Operational Materials (with American University) (Please Contact American University for copies of this publication)
  • Perceptions of Methamphetamine use in three Western Tribal Communities: Implications for Child Abuse in Indian Country - Indian country lacks both a macro and micro study of child abuse and methamphetamines. Because so little is documented routinely by either law enforcement, social services or medical professionals in assessing risks and dangers to children from environments where meth is found, data is difficult to find. However, in an attempt to explore the increasing concerns raised by the emerging methamphetamine epidemic in Indian country, professionals from three Western Tribal communities were asked to complete a survey about their perceptions of meth us and implications for child abuse in the communities in which they worked. This study was funded through the Training and Technical Assistance grant that the Tribal Law and Policy Institute receives for Children’s Justice Act Partnerships in Indian Communities to assist tribes in addressing serious child abuse. The tribes and individuals that participated in the study were guaranteed anonymity due to the sensitive nature of the questions being asked. However, each Tribal Council provided permission for the surveys to be conducted within their service areas.

The Drug Court Discretionary Grant Program (DCDG), sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, provides financial and technical assistance to states, state courts, local courts, units of local government, and American Indian tribal governments to develop and implement treatment drug courts that effectively integrate substance abuse treatment, mandatory drug testing, sanctions and incentives, and transitional services in a judicially supervised court setting with jurisdiction over nonviolent, substance-abusing offenders.

The Drug Court Planning Initiative (DCPI) is sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. This site provides communities participating in DCPI training programs with resource materials that enhance the DCPI training experience. Training resources are provided as supplements to the materials obtained at each DCPI training program.

The Drug Court Clearinghouse Project has been operating at American University since 1994 and serves as a national clearinghouse for drug court information and activity. It provides a wide range of office-based services, including telephone consultation, e-mail responses to information requests, networking and facilitation of telephone conference calls among peers to discuss issues of concern, and dissemination of sample operational materials developed by drug courts. Sample of Healing to Wellness Court documents found on their site.

  1. Buffalo Drug Court Database/MIS is a generic Management Information System that mirrors the actual MIS system used by the Buffalo, NY Drug Court. The Buffalo DMIS-2003 is a simple, menu-driven system. On-screen forms mimic those typically used to record information on drug court clients from intake through to their termination or graduation. The DMIS contains built-in reports to summarize and print case file information such as a participant’s current status, outcomes and points earned at each drug court date, and total points to date.
  2. Cass County-Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe Wellness Court Sanctions by Cass County-Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe Wellness Court September 2007
  3. December 2000 Tribal Drug Court Survey
  4. Duckwater Shoshone Tribal Juvenile Drug Court. Nixon Nevada. Treatment Program Requirements (Phases 1-4).
  5. Excerpts from Selected Opinions of Federal, State and Tribal Courts Relevant to Drug Court Programs. Volume II, Section I : Opinions: Federal Court Decisions - Louisiana. June 2006
  6. Excerpts from Selected Opinions of Federal, State and Tribal Courts Relevant to Drug Court Programs. Volume II, Section II : Opinions: Minnesota - Wyoming. June 2006 - June 2007
  7. Excerpts from Selected Opinions of Federal, State and Tribal Courts Relevant to Drug Court Programs: Part I: Decision Summaries. June 2006 
  8. Final Draft - Blackfeet Alternative Court Evaluation: Executive Summary December 2006
  9. Fort Peck Tribes Community Wellness Court: Executive Summary December 2006
  10. Ft. Peck Community Wellness Court Program Description 
  11. Healing and Community Justice Policy of the Judicial Branch of the Navajo National Remarks of the Honorable Robert Yazzie, Chief Judge of the Navajo Nation on Traditional Navajo Peacemaking and its Role in the Current Navajo Judicial System, May 1, 1998. 
  12. June 1999 Tribal Drug Court Activity Update: Summary Information 
  13. Lessons Learned from the First Four Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts and Recommendations for the Future by Karen Gottlieb and Christine Duclos December 2004
  14. List of Drug Courts by State and County - Tribal by Justice Programs Office March 2008
  15. Makah Tribal Drug/Healing to Wellness Court, Neah Bay, Washington: Policy and Procedures Manual
  16. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001- Section I. Blackfeet Tribal Court
  17. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001- Section II. Duckwater Shoshone Judicial System
  18. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001- Cover page, Table of Contents, and acknowledgement
  19. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001-Section IV. Fort Peck Tribal Court by Fort Peck Tribal Court January 1990
  20. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001-Section XI. Poarch Creek Indian Drug Court Program
  21. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001-Section VIII. Muscogee Nation
  22. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001-Section X. Pascua Yaqui Tribal Drug Court by Pascua Yaqui Tribal Drug Court June 2001
  23. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001-Section XIII. Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribal Drug Court
  24. Operational Materials for Tribal Courts June 1, 2001-Section V. Hualapai Tribal Court
  25. Overcoming Barriers to Family and Community Healing in the Wellness Court Process December 2006
  26. Pascua Yaqui Tribal Drug Court Client Guidelines and Grievance Procedure
  27. Poarch Band of Creek Indians: Executive Summary December 2006
  28. Poarch Creek Indian Tribal Drug Court Program (Atmere, AL) Staff Manual
  29. Prepared Statement of Chief Judge Don Sollars, Blackfeet Tribal Court Submitted to the United States Senate Committee on Indian Affairs Tribal Justice Issues Hearing June 3, 1998
  30. Pueblo of Zia Juvenile Healing To Wellness Court-Update
  31. Recidivism and Other Findings Reported in Selected Evaluation Reports of Tribal by Justice Programs Office December 2007
  32. Selected Opinions from Federal, State and Tribal Courts Relevant to Drug Court Programs: Part II: Opinions by Justice Programs Office May 2003
  33. Sisseton-Wahpeton Sioux Tribal Treatment Courthouse Policies and Procedures, e-mail from Judge B.J. Jones, Agency Village, SD
  34. State and Local Court Rules and Administrative Orders Relating to Drug Court Programs, May 2003
  35. Statutes Enacted in State Legislatures and Tribal Councils Relating to Drug Courts as of June 1, 2006
  36. Statutes Enacted in State Legislatures and Tribal Councils Relating to Drug Courts, as of May 1 2003
  37. The Duckwater Shoshone Drug Court, 1997-2000: Melding Traditional Dispute Resolution With Due Process. by Ronald Eagleye Johnny January 2002
  38. The Fort Peck Community Wellness Court Implementation Plan
  39. The Hualapai Community Wellness Court: Executive Summary December 2006
  40. The Leech Lake Band of Ojibwe September 2007
  41. The Navajo Nation v. Ethelyn Bengay a/k/a/ Ethelyn Peterson, Navajo District Court, Filed 12/12/96. Authority of the Court to dismiss a criminal complaint on showing that defendant has complied with peacemaking agreement
  42. The Navajo Response to Crime: by Honorable Robert Yazzie Chief Justice of the Navajo Nation 11/97
  43. Tribal Courts - Executive Summary: Process and Outcome Evaluations in Four Tribal Wellness Courts December 2005
  44. Tribal Drug Court Works on Early Intervention Youths, Record Courier, Douglas County, Nevada by Maggie O'Neill November 2003
  45. Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: Program Development Guide
  46. Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: The Judge's Bench Book
  47. Tribal Healing to Wellness Courts: Treatment Guidelines for Adults and Juveniles

General Drug Court Resources

The National Association of Drug Court Professionals (NADCP) is the principal organization of professionals involved in the development and implementation of treatment-oriented drug courts. Organized in 1994, NADCP's members include judges, prosecutors, defense attorneys, treatment providers and rehabilitation experts, law enforcement and corrections personnel, educators, researchers, and community leaders. Information on Training and Technical Assistance, Calendar of Events, Publications, and Mentor Court Network and the following Drug Court Practitioner Fact Sheets:

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) is the Federal agency charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death, disability, and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses. SAMHSA presents three agency websites that maintain official data files on the numbers of people using or needing to use the Nation's network of substance abuse prevention, addiction treatment and mental health services. They also offer:

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has an extensive listing of online publications, including the following:

Drug addiction can be effectively treated with behavioral-based therapies and, for addiction to some drugs such as heroin or nicotine, medications. Treatment may vary for each person depending on the type of drug(s) being used and multiple courses of treatment may be needed to achieve success. Research has revealed 13 basic principles that underlie effective drug addiction treatment discussed in NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (see below for complete guide).

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide

The Treatment Improvement Exchange (TIE) is a resource sponsored by the Division of State and Community Assistance of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment to provide information exchange between CSAT staff and State and local alcohol and substance abuse agencies. The TIE Contract is funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

CSAT Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs) are best practice guidelines for the treatment of substance abuse. CSAT's Office of Evaluation, Scientific Analysis, and Synthesis draws on the experience and knowledge of clinical, research, and administrative experts to produce the TIPs, which are distributed to a growing number of facilities and individuals across the country. The audience for the TIPs is expanding beyond public and private substance abuse treatment facilities as alcohol and other drug disorders are increasingly recognized as a major problem.

Norchem'sDrug Testing Quarterly has clear, concise articles and tips put you on top of the ever-changing world of drug testing. Law-enforcement officers, case workers, private industry managers, and medical professionals are among those already benefiting from this timely and informative publication. For previous editions, see their Back Issue page.

Moyers on Addiction: Close to Home, premiered on PBS stations on March 29, 1998. This Web companion piece features Science: The Hijacked Brain, the latest scientific advances in understanding and treating addiction, plus Animated Illustrations of the brain and the mechanism of drugs in the body; Treatment: Changing Lives, how treatment works, types of treatment, profiles of selected programs, and questions to ask; Prevention: The Next Generation, what works and what doesn't, who is at risk, and how we can protect our children; Policy: The Politics of Addiction, current policy, controversial issues, and what you can do to help; Viewpoints, experts debate the hot topics and Help & Resources, get help now, learn if you or a loved one has a problem, and find more information and Guides & Outreach, free, downloadable education guides for viewers, educators, employers, families, and health professionals.

Breaking The Cycle -- A Developmental Model for the Assessment and Treatment of Adolescents with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems was written by Leslie Acoca, M.A., M.F.C.C. for the National Council's Substance Abuse Program. The monograph is dedicated to providing judges with both a theoretical framework for understanding adolescent substance abuse and practical guidelines for generating and choosing effective and economical substance abuse treatment resources. Other resources can also be found at the National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges.

 

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